Can GERD lead to cancer of the esophagus?

Long-standing GERD can lead to a precancerous condition called Barrett's esophagus, in which cellular changes have taken place in the lower esophageal lining. This condition can progress further into low- or high-grade dysplasia, and then to esophageal cancer. For this reason, patients diagnosed with Barrett's esophagus are monitored regularly with endoscopic surveillance and biopsy.