What complications can arise from the different treatment methods?

Complications of surgery include cardiac and/or lung problems, anastomotic leaks, and infection.

Radiation therapy may cause transient worsening of the dysphagia early in the treatment. Radiation esophagitis may develop with continued radiation. Other side effects associated with radiation therapy are hair loss and nausea and vomiting. The latter may be controlled with medication.

Chemotherapy may also have the same gastrointestinal effects as radiation therapy.

The risk of aspiration, perforation, and reaction to the sedative given during the procedure are possible complications of endoscopic procedures. Perforation and bleeding are possible complications of stent placement. PEG placement is a low risk procedure but carries risks similar to stent placement. Photodynamic therapy causes sun sensitivity.