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VA psychologists help Veterans overcome self-stigma

Self Stigma


Self-stigma can be a major barrier to seeking mental health support

Military culture often focuses on the needs of the larger group over the individual. That culture can encourage service members to push forward even when they are suffering. When these cultural norms persist after a service member transitions from the military, they can be detrimental — and in some cases extremely harmful — to a Veteran’s mental health and wellness.

Add to this cultural pressure the stigma that many Veterans already associate with mental health conditions, and it becomes quickly apparent why seeking help can be extremely challenging for many of the Veterans who need it most.

The two most common types of stigma stem from external stereotypes and internal perceptions. Societal stigma involves prejudice and discrimination directed at a specific group by the larger population. For example, society often stigmatizes those with specific mental health conditions, such as depression and PTSD. Self-stigma occurs when people come to believe that negative stereotypes are true for themselves because they have a stigmatized condition.

When Veterans associate their mental health challenges with weakness, failure, or other negative and false stereotypes, this self-stigma can be a debilitating barrier to self-esteem and help-seeking. That’s why mental health staff members at VA are focusing on helping Veterans avoid and address self-stigma as an integral part of the mental health treatment process.

Addressing self-stigma among Veterans

Researchers at the VISN 5 MIRECC developed the Ending Self Stigma program, or ESS. This program helps people with mental health conditions mitigate the effects of both societal stigma and self-stigma through personalized strategies that embody cognitive behavioral therapy, recovery principles, and other coping techniques. The ESS program consists of nine sessions and is offered in groups of 6-8 Veterans led by 1-2 facilitators. Each session incorporates cognitive and skill-building techniques, strategy practice, and interactive discussions. Participants share their experiences, personalize the strategies, and learn from one another.

Lessons learned about reducing self-stigma

In developing the ESS program, and through research on its effectiveness and overall impact, the VISN 5 team has found the following tactics effective for Veterans dealing with self-stigma:

  • Remind yourself consciously and repeatedly that stigmatizing messages and assumptions are not true.
  • Grow positive aspects of your self-concept by identifying your values, strengths, and roles.
  • Lessen your exposure to stigmatizing messages and experiences to reduce the risk of internalizing them.
  • Delegitimize stigmatizing messages as untrue, ignorant, and harmful.

Get involved

The Ending Self Stigma manual provides a wealth of information, including the full curriculum and accompanying tips and worksheets. Ask your mental health point of contact if ESS is available at your location. VA staff members can download the free manual to start offering it at any VA facility.

The ESS team has created additional resources for specific audiences:

  • ESS for PTSD, a program for Veterans, has been tailored to address specific elements of stigma related to trauma and PTSD. To learn more visit and scroll to the bottom of this front page to find information on ESS and other stigma resources.
  • Fighting Internalized Stigma’s Impact on Families and Consumers, a workshop for family members of Veterans with serious mental illness. This workshop offers information and strategies for addressing mental health stigma. To learn more, visit and scroll to the bottom of this front page to find information on ESS and other stigma resources.
  • EASE-ing Self-Stigma is a workshop to help mental health staff members serve as anti-stigma allies. Full directions and materials for conducting the workshop at your location are available online at, along with a link to a recorded webinar in TMS. To learn more, visit and scroll to the bottom of this front page to find information on ESS and other stigma resources.

To watch videos about how Veterans and their loved ones have created healthy environments to overcome self-stigma, visit


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