It can negatively affect preventive behavior by creating a silence around the issue or by building up a prejudice against a perfectly positive behavior. For example, use of condoms is associated with prostitutes. It can negatively affect those who need to seek healthcare. For example, reluctance of STD patients to visit STD clinics to preserve confidentiality. It can negatively affect the quality of care given by health care providers who could be biased against the care seeker. It increases health costs overall because of denial of risk of risk of infection, increased infection rate, avoidance of testing, treatment of infections at an advanced stage, etc.