Tylosis, a rare autosomal-dominant disorder is the only genetic link to esophageal cancer. Those affected by this condition have a significantly increased chance of developing esophageal cancer by the age of 63-65.
The prevalence of esophageal cancer is higher among men. African-American men are 4 times more likely than white men to get squamous cell carcinoma whereas white men appear to more likely to develop adenocarcinoma. The area from Iran through Afghanistan to Mongolia and northwest to China has a higher incidence of esophageal cancer. This is known as the Asian esophageal cancer belt.